These are frequently asked questions in the world of Physical Education. Let’s take a look at them!
1. What are the physical qualities or abilities?
The physical qualities or abilities are: strength, speed, endurance, elongation, and/or stretching.
2. What is meant by endurance in Physical Education?
Endurance is the ability to make an effort of greater or lesser intensity for a prolonged period, as well as the ability to resist fatigue (whether biological, cerebral, anatomical, etc.) that an individual has.
3. What types of endurance exist in Physical Education?
The types of endurance are:
- Aerobic Endurance (which is defined as the ability to maintain continuous effort for a long time, during which oxygen supply to the blood allows for the muscular expenditure needs to be met).
- Anaerobic Endurance (which is defined as the ability to perform intense exercise, causing an imbalance between the supply of oxygen and the body’s needs). Within this last type, two subtypes are distinguished: Alactic Anaerobic Endurance, in which ATP and P. C. (energy) stored in the muscle are used without oxygen debt and without waste production; and Lactic Anaerobic Endurance, in which lactic acid formation occurs because the breakdown of sugars and fats to resynthesize ATP through glycolysis (the process of breaking down glucose into its simplest components within cells) is carried out with oxygen debt.
The Spanish channel Ullesportiu presents a video on Endurance in Physical Education and the types of endurance that exist, available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGt1eZzTMPk&feature=emb_logo
4. What is fatigue?
Fatigue is an alarm reaction that manifests itself in the individual, causing a decrease in performance due to an excess of stimulation.
5. What are the types of fatigue?
The types of fatigue are three: psychological fatigue, nervous fatigue, and muscular fatigue.
6. What is meant by muscle quality?
Muscle quality refers to the fact that the muscle has larger or smaller motor units, its fibers are of a certain type, etc. It depends on the training being better assimilated and the endurance performances being higher.
7. What are the energy systems?
The energy systems are: maximal intensity efforts (Alactic Anaerobic Endurance), submaximal intensity efforts (Lactic Anaerobic Endurance), and medium intensity efforts (Aerobic Endurance).
8. What is the heart rate for each one?
The heart rate for each one is: in maximal intensity efforts, above 180 beats per minute; in submaximal intensity efforts, above 140 beats per minute, and in medium intensity efforts, between 120 and 140 beats per minute.
9. According to the physio-biological characteristics, what are the phases from 13 to 17 years old?
According to the physio-biological characteristics, there are two phases from 13 to 17 years old, which are differentiated as follows: one lasts until 14 years old (puberty produces a minimal capacity to withstand effort), and the other goes from 14 to 17 (in which the work of aerobic endurance increases and anaerobic endurance begins).
10. What are the different types of effort?
Regarding the different types of efforts, we can classify them into the alactic system (speed exercises up to 7 seconds, pure speed characterized as “power,” and from 7 to 15 seconds, prolonged speed known as “capacity”), which is anaerobic but without lactate production -the recovery time needed is about 2 to 3 minutes, depending on each individual’s preparation-; the lactate system involves the segregation of lactic acid, which causes cramps, from exercises lasting more than 15 seconds.
Examples of this would be, in the first case, speed exercises such as running a certain distance (whether it’s 50 meters or other) in a time less than 15 seconds. The second case is practically the same, but with an even greater distance in a time that exceeds 15 seconds.
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